Lines of Apostolic Succession

of the Order of Magdal-Eder

"Apostolic Succession" refers to the transmission of the spiritual gifts entrusted to the original apostles by Jesus, the Christ, which have been passed on throughout the church's history by consecration, the direct laying-on-of-hands, in an unbroken lines from the apostles to their successors, bishop to bishop. Bishops, who hold the fullness of these gifts, share their commission in the name of the Christ with priests in their charge for the purpose of serving the community of the faithful and making the sacraments more readily available to God's people. These spiritual gifts ensure and preserve the sacred life of the various branches of the One, Holy, Catholic, Apostolic Church's sacramental nature.

In addition to Roman and Old Catholic lines of apostolic succession listed below, we also inherit the lines of the:


The Roman ~ Old Catholic Succession (See of Utrecht)

1 St. Peter (32-67)
2 St. Linus (67-76)
3 St. Anacletus (Cletus) (76-88)
4 St. Clement I (88-97)
5 St. Evaristus (97-105)
6 St. Alexander I (105-115)
7 St. Sixtus I (115-125) -- also called Xystus I
8 St. Telesphorus (125-136)
9 St. Hyginus (136-140)
10 St. Pius I (140-155)
11 St. Anicetus (155-166)
12 St. Soter (166-175)
13 St. Eleutherius (175-189)
14 St. Victor I (189-199)
15 St. Zephyrinus (199-217)
16 St. Callistus I (217-22)
17 St. Urban I (222-30)
18 St. Pontain (230-35)
19 St. Anterus (235-36)
20 St. Fabian (236-50)
21 St. Cornelius (251-53)
22 St. Lucius I (253-54)
23 St. Stephen I (254-257)
24 St. Sixtus II (257-258)
25 St. Dionysius (260-268)
26 St. Felix I (269-274)
27 St. Eutychian (275-283)
28 St. Caius (283-296) -- also called Gaius
29 St. Marcellinus (296-304)
30 St. Marcellus I (308-309)
31 St. Eusebius (309 or 310)
32 St. Miltiades (311-14)
33 St. Sylvester I (314-35)
34 St. Marcus (336)
35 St. Julius I (337-52)
36 Liberius (352-66)
37 St. Damasus I (366-83)
38 St. Siricius (384-99)
39 St. Anastasius I (399-401)
40 St. Innocent I (401-17)
41 St. Zosimus (417-18)
42 St. Boniface I (418-22)
43 St. Celestine I (422-32)
44 St. Sixtus III (432-40)
45 St. Leo I (the Great) (440-61)
46 St. Hilarius (461-68)
47 St. Simplicius (468-83)
48 St. Felix III (II) (483-92)
49 St. Gelasius I (492-96)
50 Anastasius II (496-98)
51 St. Symmachus (498-514)
52 St. Hormisdas (514-23)
53 St. John I (523-26)
54 St. Felix IV (III) (526-30)
55 Boniface II (530-32)
56 John II (533-35)
57 St. Agapetus I (535-36) -- also called Agapitus I
58 St. Silverius (536-37)
59 Vigilius (537-55)
60 Pelagius I (556-61)
61 John III (561-74)
62 Benedict I (575-79)
63 Pelagius II (579-90)
64 St. Gregory I (the Great) (590-604)
65 Sabinian (604-606)
66 Boniface III (607)
67 St. Boniface IV (608-15)
68 St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (615-18)
69 Boniface V (619-25)
70 Honorius I (625-38)
71 Severinus (640)
72 John IV (640-42)
73 Theodore I (642-49)
74 St. Martin I (649-55)
75 St. Eugene I (655-57)
76 St. Vitalian (657-72)
77 Adeodatus (II) (672-76)
78 Donus (676-78)
79 St. Agatho (678-81)
80 St. Leo II (682-83)
81 St. Benedict II (684-85)
82 John V (685-86)
83 Conon (686-87)
84 St. Sergius I (687-701)
85 John VI (701-05)
86 John VII (705-07)
87 Sisinnius (708)
88 Constantine (708-15)
89 St. Gregory II (715-31)
90 St. Gregory III (731-41)
91 St. Zachary (741-52)
92 Stephen III (752-57)
93 St. Paul I (757-67)
94 Stephen IV (767-72)
95 Adrian I (772-95)
96 St. Leo III (795-816)
97 Stephen V (816-17)
98 St. Paschal I (817-24)
99 Eugene II (824-27)
100 Valentine (827)
101 Gregory IV (827-44)
102 Sergius II (844-47)
103 St. Leo IV (847-55)
104 Benedict III (855-58)
105 St. Nicholas I (the Great) (858-67)
106 Adrian II (867-72)
107 John VIII (872-82)
108 Marinus I (882-84)
109 St. Adrian III (884-85)
110 Stephen VI (885-91)
111 Formosus (891-96)
112 Boniface VI (896)
113 Stephen VII (896-97)
114 Romanus (897)
115 Theodore II (897)
116 John IX (898-900)
117 Benedict IV (900-03)
118 Leo V (903)
119 Sergius III (904-11)
120 Anastasius III (911-13)
121 Lando (913-14)
122 John X (914-28)
123 Leo VI (928)
124 Stephen VIII (929-31)
125 John XI (931-35)
126 Leo VII (936-39)
127 Stephen IX (939-42)
128 Marinus II (942-46)
129 Agapetus II (946-55)
130 John XII (955-63)
131 Leo VIII (963-64)
132 Benedict V (964)
133 John XIII (965-72)
134 Benedict VI (973-74)
135 Benedict VII (974-83)
136 John XIV (983-84)
137 John XV (985-96)
138 Gregory V (996-99)
139 Sylvester II (999-1003)
140 John XVII (1003)
141 John XVIII (1003-09)
142 Sergius IV (1009-12)
143 Benedict VIII (1012-24)
144 John XIX (1024-32)
145 Benedict IX (1032-45)
146 Sylvester III (1045)
147 Benedict IX (1045)
148 Gregory VI (1045-46)
149 Clement II (1046-47)
150 Benedict IX (1047-48)
151 Damasus II (1048)
152 St. Leo IX (1049-54)
153 Victor II (1055-57)
154 Stephen X (1057-58)
155 Nicholas II (1058-61)
156 Alexander II (1061-73)
157 St. Gregory VII (1073-85)
158 Blessed Victor III (1086-87)
159 Blessed Urban II (1088-99)
160 Paschal II (1099-1118)
161 Gelasius II (1118-19)
162 Callistus II (1119-24)
163 Honorius II (1124-30)
164 Innocent II (1130-43)
165 Celestine II (1143-44)
166 Lucius II (1144-45)
167 Blessed Eugene III (1145-53)
168 Anastasius IV (1153-54)
169 Adrian IV (1154-59)
170 Alexander III (1159-81)
171 Lucius III (1181-85)
172 Urban III (1185-87)
173 Gregory VIII (1187)
174 Clement III (1187-91)
175 Celestine III (1191-98)
176 Innocent III (1198-1216)
177 Honorius III (1216-27)
178 Gregory IX (1227-41)
179 Celestine IV (1241)
180 Innocent IV (1243-54)
181 Alexander IV (1254-61)
182 Urban IV (1261-64)
183 Clement IV (1265-68)
184 Blessed Gregory X (1271-76)
185 Blessed Innocent V (1276)
186 Adrian V (1276)
187 John XXI (1276-77)
188 Nicholas III (1277-80)
189 Martin IV (1281-85)
190 Honorius IV (1285-87)
191 Nicholas IV (1288-92)
192 St. Celestine V (1294)
193 Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
194 Blessed Benedict XI (1303-04)
195 Clement V (1305-14)
196 John XXII (1316-34)
197 Benedict XII (1334-42)
198 Clement VI (1342-52)
199 Innocent VI (1352-62)
200 Blessed Urban V (1362-70)
201 Gregory XI (1370-78)
202 Urban VI (1378-89)
203 Boniface IX (1389-1404)
204 Innocent VII (1404-06)
205 Gregory XII (1406-15)
206 Martin V (1417-31)
207 Eugene IV (1431-47)
208 Nicholas V (1447-55)
209 Callistus III (1455-58)
210 Pius II (1458-64)
211 Paul II (1464-71)
212 Sixtus IV (1471-84)
213 Innocent VIII (1484-92)
214 Alexander VI (1492-1503)
215 Pius III (1503)
216 Julius II (1503-13)
217 Leo X (1513-21)
218 Adrian VI (1522-23)
219 Clement VII (1523-34)
220 Paul III (1534-49)
221 Julius III (1550-55)
222 Marcellus II (1555)
223 Paul IV (1555-59)
224 Pius IV (1559-65)
225 St. Pius V (1566-72)
226 Gregory XIII (1572-85)
227 Sixtus V (1585-90)
228 Urban VII (1590)
229 Gregory XIV (1590-91)
230 Innocent IX (1591)
231 Clement VIII (1592-1605)
232 Leo XI (1605)
233 Paul V (1605-21)
234 Gregory XV (1621-23)
235 Urban VIII (1623-44)
236 Innocent X (1644-55)
237 Alexander VII (1655-67)

Old Succession (from the Roman Succession to Holland, France, England and the United States)


238 Antonio Barberini, (the younger), Roman Catholic Bishop of Frascati, 1655, who on 11 November, 1668, consecrated:

239 Charles Maurice Le Tellier, Roman Catholic Bishop of Mieux, who on 21 September, 1670, consecrated:

240 Jaques Benigne Boussuet, who on 24 October, 1693, consecrated:

241 Jaques Goyon De Matigon, who on 18 February, 1719, consecrated:

242 Dominicus Marie Varlet, Roman Catholic Bishop of Babylon (at Baghdad), who on 17 October, 1739, consecrated:

243 Petrus Meindaerts, Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, who on 11 July, 1745, consecrated:

244 Johannes Van Stiphout, Old Catholic Bishop of Harrlem, who on 7 February, 1768, consecrated:

245 Gualterus Michael Van Nieuwenhuizen, Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, who on 21 June, 1778, consecrated:

246 Adrianus Johannes Broekman, Old Catholic Bishop of Harrlem, who on 5 July, 1797, consecrated:

247 Johannes Jacobus Van Rhijn, Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, who on 7 November, 1805, consecrated:

248 Gilbert Cornelius De Jong, Old Catholic Bishop of Deventer, who on 24 April, 1814, consecrated:

249 Willibord Van Os, Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, who on 25 April, 1819, consecrated:

250 Johannes Bon, Old Catholic Bishop of Haarlem, who on 13 November, 1824, consecrated:

251 Johannes Van Santen, Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, who on 17 July, 1854, consecrated:

252 Hermanus Heijkamp, who in 1873 consecrated:


253 Casparus Johannes Rinkel, Old Catholic Bishop of Haarlem, who on 11 May, 1892, consecrated:

254 Gerard Gul, Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, who on 28 April, 1908, consecrated:

255 Arnold Harris Mathew, Old Catholic Bishop for Great Britain, who on 28 October, 1914, consecrated:

256 Frederick Samuel Willoughby, who on 13 February, 1916, consecrated:

257 James Ingall Wedgwood, Presiding Bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church, who on 13 July, 1919, consecrated:

258 Irving Steiger Cooper, Liberal Catholic Regionary Bishop for the United States, who on 13 September, 1931, consecrated:

259 Charles H. Hampton, assisted by Bishop Lowell Paul Wadle and Bishop H. Francis Marshall, who on 22 June, 1957, consecrated:

260 Herman Adrian Spruit, Archbishop-Patriarch of the Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite, who on 25 June, 1978, consecrated:

261 Frank Ellsworth Hughes, Bishop of the Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite, assisted by J. Cris Grier, Bishop of the Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite (consecrated by Herman Spruit 1980), who on 12 July, 1981, consecrated:

262 Martha Shultz, (Martha Jo Mohring), Presiding Bishop +Martha Theresa, who, assisted by Dale Shultz and Kennith Brin, consecrated:

263 M. Elaine Bessette, Bp. +Elaine André, 17 September, 2005, at Cortez, Colorado.


The Jacobite ~ Antiochian Succession

1 Peter, 38;

2 Evodus 40;

3 Ignatius I, 43;

4 Aaron,123;

5 Cornelius,123;

6 Eodos,142;

7 Theophulus,157;

8 Maximinus,171;

9 Seraphim,179;

10 Astlediaes,189;

11 Philip, 201;

12 Sebinus {Zebinus},219;

13 Babylos, 237;

14 Fabius, 250;

15 Demetrius, 251;

16 Paul 1, 259;

17 Domnus 1, 270;

18 Timotheus,281;

19 Cyrilus,281;

20 Tyrantus, 296;

21 Vitalius, 301;

22 Philognius, 318;

23 Eustachius, 323;

24 Paulinius, 338;

25 Philabianus, 383;

26 Evagrius, 386;

27 Phosohorius, 416;

28 Alexander, 418;

29 John 1, 428;

30 Theodotus, 431;

31 Domnus II, 442;

32 Maximus, 450;

33 Accacius, 454;

34 Martyrius, 457;

35 Peter II, 464;

36 Philadius, 500;

37 Serverius, 509;

38 Segius, 544;

39 Domnus III, 547;

40 Anadtasius, 560;

41 Gregory I, 564;

42 Paul II, 567;

43 Patra, 571;

44 Domnus IV, 586;

45 Julianus, 591;

46 Athanasius I, 595;

47 John II, 636;

48 Theodorus I, 649;

49 Severus, 668;

50 Athanasius II, 684;

51 Julianus II, 687;

52 Elias I, 709;

53 Athanasius lII 724;

54 Evanius I, 740;

55 Gervasius I, 759;

56 Joseph, 790;

57 Cyriacus, 793;

58 Dionysius I, 818;

59 John III, 847;

60 Ignatius II, 877;

61 Theodosius, 887;

62 Dionysius II 897;

63 John IV, 91 0;

64 Basilus I, 922;

65 John V, 936;

66 Evanius II, 954;

67 Dionysius lII, 958;

68 Abraham I, 962;

69 John Vl, 965;

70 Athamasius IV, 987;

71 John Vll, 1004;

72 Dionysius IV, 1032;

73 Theodorus II, 1042;

74 Athanasius V, 1058;

75 John VlII, 1 064;

76 Basilius II, 1074;

77 Abdoone, 1076;

78 Dionysius V, 1077;

79 Evanius III, 1080;

80 Dionysius Vl, 1088;

81 Athanasius VI, 1091;

82 John IX, 1131;

83 Athanasius Vll, 1139;

84 Michael I, 1167;

85 Athanasius VlII, 1200;

86 Michael II, 1207;

87 John X, 1208;

88 Ignatius III,1223;

89 Dionysius Vll, 1253;

90 John Xl, 1253;

91 Ignatius IV, 1264;

92 Philanus, 1283;

93 Ignatius Baruhid, 1293;

94 Ignatius Ismael, 1333;

95 Ignatius Basilius III, 1366;

96 Ignatius Abraham II, 382;

97 Ignatius Bacalius IV, 412;

98 Ignatius Behanam l, 1415;

99 Ignatius Kalejih, 1455;

100 Ignatius John Xll, 1483;

101 Ignatius Noah, 1492;

102 Ignatius Jesus l, 1509;

103 Ignatius Jacob I, 1510;

104 Ignatius David I, 1519;

105 Ignatius Abdullah l, 1520;

106 Ignatius Naamathalak, 1557;

107 Ignatius David II, 1577;

108 Ignatius Philathus, 1591;

109 Ignatius Abdullah II, 1597;

110 Ignatius Cadhai, 1598;

111 Ignatius Simeon, 1640;

112 Ignatius Jesus II, 1661;

113 Ignatius Messiah, 1661;

114 Ignatius Cabeeb, 1686;

115 Ignatius Gervasius II, 1687;

116 Ignatius Isaac, 1708;

117 Ignatius Siccarablak, 1722;

118 Ignatius Gervasius lII, 1746;

119 Ignatius Gervasius IV, 1768;

120 Ignatius Mathias, 1781;

121 Ignatius Behanam, 1810;

122 Ignatius Jonas, 1817;

123 Ignatius Gervasius V, 1818;

124 Ignatius Elias II,1839;

125 Ignatius Jacob II,1847;

126 Mar Ignatius Peter lII, 1872.

127 Paulose Mar Athanasius (Kadavil Kooran) was consecrated on December 4,1907 by Mar Ignatius Peter lII as Syrian Antioch Bishop of Kottayam and Metropolitan of Malabar (India).

128 Mar Julius I (Antonio Francis Xavier Alvares) was consecrated July 28, 1889, by Paulose Mar Athanasius, under authority of Patriarch Ignatius Peter lII to be Archbishop of the Latin Rite Independent Catholic Church of Ceylon, Goa and India.

129 Joseph Rene Vilatte was consecrated on May 29, 1892 in Columba, Ceylon at Our Lady of Good Death Cathedral by Mar Julius I, under authority of a Bull of Mar Ignatius Peter lII, to serve as Archbishop of North America.

130 Frederick E. Lloyd, American Catholic Church, USA, was consecrated in 1915

131 Samuel Gregory Lines, American Catholic Church, USA, was consecrated in 1923

132 Justin Boyle, American Catholic Church, USA, was consecrated in 1927

133 Lowell Paul Wadle, American Catholic Church, USA, was consecrated in 1940

134 Herman A. Spruit, Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite, USA, was consecrated in 1957

135 Frank Ellsworth Hughes, Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite, USA, was consecrated in 1978

136 Martha Jo (Mohring) Schultz, New Order of Glastonbury, USA, was consecrated in 1981

137 M. Elaine Bessette, Bp. +Elaine André, Order of Magdal-Eder, USA, was consecrated in 2005


Bishop +Herman A. Spruit's History:

Bringing the Lines of Apostolic Succession Together

In 1944-45 a series of Codicils and Concordats led to the formation of the Federation of  Independent Catholic and Orthodox Bishops. The first of  these united the major lines of Archbishop Lowell Paul Wadle (American Catholic Church, +Rene Vilatte succession),  Patriarch Anthony Aneed (Byzantine Catholic Church, Greek Melchite succession) and Bishop Edgar Ramon Verostek (Bishop Commissary for the American Old Roman Catholic Church).

The Old Catholic lineage is derived from those Roman bishops who declined to approve the decree by the Roman pontiff declaring himself infallible (Council of Utrecht - 1870).

In 1945 the first codicil to the American Concordat was made adding the lines of Bishop Charles Hampton  (Regionary Bishop, Liberal Catholic Church, USA) and Archbishop Henry Joseph Kleefisch, (Byzantine Universal Orthodox Church) who held the Primacy of the Russian Orthodox Church. (Agreements among these strands insured untainted lines of primacy for any future consecrations of bishops.)

In 1957 Herman Adrian Spruit was consecrated a bishop for the first Church Universal by Bishops Charles Hampton, Archbishop Lowell Paul Wadle and Bishop H. Francis Marshall. Upon the death of Archbishop Kleefisch, in 1955, his primacy was bequeathed to Archbishop-Patriarch Anthony Aneed.

Archbishop Herman Spruit became the President of the Federation of Independent Catholic and Orthodox Bishops. On June 27, 1965 Archbishop Robert Raleigh (Boyle) and Archbishop Herman Spruit imposed hands on one other in a specific sub-condicione ceremony for the purpose of uniting their respective jurisdictions. Archbishop Robert Raleigh retired in 1965 shortly after naming Archbishop Herman A. Spruit his successor.

Upon the death of Patriarch Anthony Aneed in 1970,  the primacy of the Byzantine Catholic Church also passed to Archbishop Herman A. Spruit. Within this jurisdiction were two major primacies: +Aneed's which included the Greek Melchite lineage and +Kleefisch, which included the primacy of the Russian Orthodox Church. Since Patriarch Aneed was enthroned Patriarch in 1946 the title of Patriarch then passed to +Spruit by the last will and testament of +Anthony Aneed.

~o0o~

Bp. +Frank Ellsworth Hughes' Instrument of Consecration:


Bp. +Martha Jo Mohring (Shultz)'s Instrument of Consecration:


+Elaine André, Presiding Bishop of the Order of Magdal-Eder,

Leads the Recessional From the Chapel After Being Consecrated



"Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the world." (Matthew 28:19-20)

~oOo~


A Case of Rewritten History

As the record shows, Bp. +Frank Ellsworth Hughes and Bp. +J. Cris Grier consecrated Bp. +Martha Jo Mohring (Shultz), July 12, 1981. In attempting to document an unimpeachable record of the apostolic line of succession through Bp. +Herman A. Spruit to our founding bishop we contacted Archbishop +Richard Gundrey, Presiding Bishop of the Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite, requesting documentation for +Martha Jo Mohring (Shultz)'s consecrators, +Frank Hughes and +J. Cris Grier. +Gundrey could not locate any record whatsoever for +Hughes, +Grier, or +Mohring.

We persisted by asking if the records might have been expunged or if it might have possibly been a case of failure to record consecrations of bishops due to Bp. +Spruit's seniority. Archbishop +Gundrey subsequently spoke with his predecessor, +Meri Spruit, from whom he received some information about the matter. We were informed that, indeed, Bp. +Spruit had consecrated +Frank Hughes in 1978. But still, no information for +J. Cris Grier was forthcoming, so we again made the request for records, hoping to complete our documentation. Eventually, we received word from +Gundrey that, yes, +Spruit had consecrated +Grier in 1980, but that he still could find no record for +Hughes or +Grier in their archives. However, he did furnish us with some of the history he'd received verbally from +Meri Spruit that may have precipitated or played some part in expunged records within the Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite. In essence, it is as follows:

According to the official statements of the Church of Antioch:

Bp. +Frank Hughes was officially excommunicated from the Church of Antioch in 1996 by the then presiding bishop, +Meri Spruit. +Hughes had founded the New Order of Glastonbury in 1979. The C of A reports that in 1981, without the knowledge of their presiding bishop and against the jurisdiction's policies, +Hughes and +Grier consecrated +Martha Jo Mohring to succeed +Hughes in presiding over the New Order of Glastonbury with Bp. +Spruit having rushed to the scene to find +Hughes packing up and +Mohring's consecration already accomplished.

We express our sincere thanks to Archbishop +Gundrey for his willingness and persistent efforts in attempting to set the record straight and for providing us with his jurisdiction's version of background on the notorious event.

Subsequently, we were furnished with the above copies of +Frank Hughes' and +Martha Jo Morhing (Shultz)'s consecration documents by Bp. +John P. Plummer, author of the book "The Many Paths of the Independent Sacramental Movement". We are indebted to Bp. +Plummer and thank him for his gracious help, his research on the independent Catholic sacramental jurisdictions, and for having archived so much of church history. Within a week we also received a copy of +Frank Hughes' consecration document from Archbp. +Gundrey, which serves as a sign of hope for others who might have experienced a block to apostolic succession records previously.

A Question of Founder:

Bp. +Martha Mohring Shultz published the booklet "Catholics Irregular" in 2004, which included the photo below that gives witness to the good will between hers and +Spruit's jurisdictions:

Left to right: Bishop Meri Spruit, Church of Antioch; Bishop Martha Theresa, [Martha Jo Mohring (Shultz)], founder of the New Order of Glastonbury; Archbishop Herman Adrian Spruit, founder of the Church of Antioch. (photo taken by Bishop Dale Shultz in 1989 on the occasion of a visit to the Patriarch)

We note that Bp. +Shultz's published information varies from the information furnished by Archbp. +Gundrey in that +Gundrey reports +Frank Hughes as having founded the New Order of Glastonbury while +Shultz's photo caption declares herself founder.

The matter of the founder of the order has been cleared up subsequent to Bp. +Martha's death (4/27/2007). Records in her possession clearly indicate that +Hughes founded the order.

For the record:

We have subsequently obtained records that clarify the matter of +J. Cris Grier's connection to the Church of Antioch and the New Order of Glastonbury from the Church of Antioch's own publications. Our source:  The Fellowship Journal of the Church of Antioch, Vol. 1, Nov. IV. pg. 2; published at Church Central, Church of Antioch, Mountain View, CA:


+J. Cris Grier was elevated to Bishop on 10/11/1980 by +Herman and +Meri Spruit and named Bishop of Central California. Also present were:  ++John Joseph Rankin, ++Arnold & ++Shirley Eyre.
 

Further information on the matter of the Church of Antioch's records regarding +Hughes:

Bp. +Frank Hughes was excommunicated by +Meri Spruit in 1996, ten years after his death.  HUGHES, FRANK ELLSWORTH, born - 2/25/1929; died - 6/2/1986, according to California death records. 

The Church of Antioch claims to have verbally declared +Hughes excommunicated at the time of the breach of etiquette, but only made it a matter of official record ten years later.

Letters between the various parties involved in the creation of the New Order of Glastonbury and the Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite seem to substantiate their claim that the New Order of Glastonbury was formed with the prior knowledge and conscent of Bp. +Herman Spruit of the Church of Antioch, though according to Archbishop +Gundrey, +Spruit had wanted to send a bishop of his choice to perform the consecration. It appears that the breach of ecclesial etiquette was Hughes' determination to perform the rite without permission. There is some evidence to support that the New Order of Glastonbury sought to have a consecration that did not fall specifically under the Church of Antioch's jurisdiction for tax purposes.

Archbishop +Gundrey has written further on the matter of excommunication, saying that the understanding under which the Church of Antioch considered unsanctioned ordinations and consecrations, germane to our inquiry into events in the 70s and 80s, was at the time derived from an Eastern Rite church's point of view --- that is: when an individual is excommunicated, they no longer have valid faculties as deacon, priest, or bishop, and any ordinations performed by an excommunicated person would be considered invalid. +Gundrey and the Church of Antioch no longer subscribe to the Eastern Rite view and align themselves to the understanding held in the Western Rites, wherein a bishop is a successor to the apostles, a channel of the Holy Spirit, whose consecration cannot be revoked by earthly command or legal decree.

In the case of a priest, however, it is important to note that, though a priest is a priest forever 'after the order of Melchizedek', the priest's faculties are a matter of shared priesthood in the fullness of the bishop's priesthood to whom the priest is aligned in a spiritual bond. Thus, severing the bond with one's bishop renders the priest's faculties void or defunct. A new alliance with another bishop can restore the priest to valid faculties if and when a bishop expressly grants them, since it is the bishop's priesthood that is effectively extended to the priesthood within the bishop's see for service to God's people.

Though there has been intrigue in recent times regarding the connection between these two jurisdictions, in the late 1970s and early '80s these people played a significant role in bringing about a truly egalitarian church for our times, as they were the pioneers who helped to dissolve the exclusivity of patriarchy in restoring Christ's egalitarian church by consecrating women to the episcopacy.

~o0o~